The coffee plant

The coffee plant belongs to the Rubiaceae family of the genus Coffea. The two most important species are Arabica and Robusta, which differ in height and for their growing characteristics. While Robusta can reach 8-10 metres, Arabica grows to 6-8 metres; Robusta requires higher temperatures, between 24 and 26°C against 20-25°C for Arabica. Of the two, Arabica is the most widespread, accounting for three quarters of the coffee produced worldwide.
The coffee plant is grown in every inhabited continent, except Europe and North America, mainly in the belt between the two tropics. The three most important areas are: Central and South America, Central Africa and the area between India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Papua-New Guinea. Coffee growing varies from one country to another, each having its own methods of cultivation, harvesting and processing. There are more than eighty coffee-growing countries, but the main ones are: Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, India, Peru and Mexico.